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As a new gardener it is good to start with potting mix. An ideal composition define based on crop which you are planned to cultivate in pot. As a general potting mixture usually red earth, well decomposed cattle manure, leaf mold and sand are used.
Which is in the following proportion:
Red earth – 2 parts
Cattle manure/FYM & leaf mold – 1 part
Sand -1 part.
Red earth is a basic planting media, it is firm and dense to hold plant.
Cattle manure/FYM and leaf mold helps to hold water for longer time. And good source of organic carbon which helps plant to uptake nutrient for its growth and development.
Sand is a satisfactory medium for rooting.
This basic media is enough to start planting in pot.
And for your 2nd Question.
Dr Divyesh use of fertilizer is also depend on the plant/crop need. Usually all the essential nutrient for plant growth and development are already present in soil or floating in air. But the point is all plants cannot access the key nutrients which are found in soil or in air.
Each soil type has its own nutritional ingredients, so before considering what fertilizer need to use, we need to consider the crop we are growing. Fertilizers are applied based on crop nutritional requirement.
Plant required 19 different nutrient for its growth and development. Carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen are basic nutrient, plants directly access either in soil or in air. But Nitrogen, Phosphorous and potash are essential major nutrient which need to supply externally. There are other 13 minor nutrient which are supplied based on crop need.
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